Category: music

In the swing of things

Over the course of three evenings, 24 stellar international musicians will descend upon the Tata Theatre as the NCPA International Jazz Festival 2022 makes its long-awaited return later this month

Bouncing back from the setbacks of the pandemic, it would not be inaccurate to say that 2022 is all about making up for lost time. At the NCPA, the phenomenal programming of a bevy of fantastic artistes is an indicator of the great revival. For one, the NCPA International Jazz Festival, the much-awaited annual celebration of jazz at its best, has returned after a long wait and with it comes a dizzying array of acclaimed musicians to match. 

A legacy lives on

The festival will open right where it left off three years ago. Those present at the 2019 edition of the festival, when the Mingus Dynasty Quartet turned it all the way up, truly know to expect nothing less. This edition will welcome the Grammy-winning 14-piece Mingus Big Band — a collective that celebrates the compelling music of virtuoso composer, bandleader and bass player Charles Mingus who died in 1979. Featuring a rotation of fine jazz musicians who push the limits of their instruments, the band was nominated for six Grammys and won for their album Live at Jazz Standard in 2011. Like the Mingus Dynasty Quartet, the big band was formed under the artistic direction of the composer’s widow, Sue Mingus, who sadly passed away in September this year. “I have worked with Sue since 1999,” says Albert Sun, booking agent and tour manager of the Mingus bands. “To witness the passion and dedication she had for her mission to promote Charles Mingus was infectious.” 

The year 2022 coincides with Mingus’s birth centenary and the band has been playing at festivals and prestigious venues alike. Drummer Donald Edwards, one of four musicians who will return to the NCPA, feels honoured to be able to carry forward the legacy of the multifaceted musician. Also returning is Abraham Burton, tenor sax and member of the Mingus bands for the past 25 years, who says, “The passing of Sue is a tremendous loss for the jazz community and a deeply felt void for those of us who knew her personally. She was an extremely intelligent woman, a writer and, truly, a poet. When you study the history of this music, you become aware of the obstacles, sacrifices and hard work endured by the great musicians before us. I feel fortunate to be a part of this lineage carrying forward a message through this rich art form. This is Mingus’s centennial, and we intend to celebrate the lives of Charles and Sue Mingus with a powerful charge.”

That some of the finest musicians on the scene make the great Mingus Big Band what it is, is a given. Pianist Theo Hill will return to the NCPA too, as will Alex Sipiagin on trumpet. We will see for the first time the band’s music director Boris Kozlov on bass, Earl McIntyre — who has performed with Mingus —on the bass trombone and tuba, and a stellar selection of veterans and next-generation musicians on saxophones, trumpets and trombones. One can expect impactful melodies and rich, thick harmonies in the music inspired by social and political events. There will be a nod to different genres ranging from the blues and gospel to Latin and classical alongside tributes to Mingus’s favourite musicians and jazz solos to boot. Material from The Charles Mingus Centennial Sessions, the band’s 2022 release, will also find its way into what can only be expected to be a very special and meaningful concert. As manager of the Mingus Big Band for over 20 years, Sun knows all too well what touring as a big band entails. “As difficult as it is, the rewards, when you see the response to the music, is so gratifying. I’ve worked with several bands in my career, and this is the only one where I can truly say everyone checks their ego at the door for the sake of the music. It takes a special kind of musician to stay involved with this band. That is some of Sue’s magic, to wean out those who couldn’t cut the mustard for the sake of Charles and the wellbeing of everyone on the team.”

Jazz meets Jamaica

Grammy-nominated jazz pianist Monty Alexander will take to the stage with an ensemble of four marvellous musicians for the second act of the festival. The Jamaican-born, US-based pianist, whose repertoire spans a broad range of classic jazz and Caribbean expressions—the American songbook and the blues, gospel and bebop, calypso and reggae—is tinged with sounds of his homeland. “It is my pleasure to invite the audience to go with me musically around the world because when I play, I draw on my own personal inspiration of the exciting adventures I’ve had in my life. Yes, my heritage of Jamaican culture is at the forefront of all that I do and yet my original love for American music started with the great Louis Armstrong “Satchmo” who I met when I was ten years old,” says Alexander, who soaked in the music of legends like Nat King Cole and other greats at a very young age. 

Alexander has recorded more than 75 albums and has been touring relentlessly over the years; since 1976, he has performed 23 times at the Montreux Jazz Festival. At the NCPA International Jazz Festival 2022, he will perform with his bassist from Canada, Luke Sellick; New York-based drummer Jason Brown, adept at everything from Caribbean rhythms and contemporary styles to classic American swing; English trombone player Dennis Rollins, also of Jamaican heritage, who will bring his flair for ska and reggae to the table; and guitarist and electric bassist Joshua Thomas, another musician with Jamaican roots who will embolden all the rhythms Alexander would like to put forth at the concert. “A part of my palette is rhythm, the kind of rhythm that makes one tap their foot or shake their body to it, and to bring out melody sections. But the main point is to bring upliftment to everyone, including myself,” says Alexander. The audience can expect to be treated to material fromLove Notes, his latest and only album to feature his own vocals and which includes classic interpretations of jazz greats suffused with sounds from the island. 

Sleek and sublime

The virtuosity will shine through on the last day, when the Thilo Wolf Jazz Quartet takes to the stage for the festival’s finale. With a repertoire that spans a mix of the American songbook and Wolf’s own compositions, the ensemble includes musicians from the rhythm section of Germany’s famed Thilo Wolf Big Band, including Norbert Nagel (reeds), Christian Diener (bass) and Jean Paul Höchstädter (drums). The quartet will play swinging, driving and melodic jazz, characterised by its liveliness and bolstered by the great joy of playing and improvising. “It is important to take the audience with us in the concert and to interact and establish a sense of closeness,” says Wolf. 

Over course of his illustrious career, Wolf has worked closely with many a vocalist for both his big band and quartet. This time, the quartet will be joined by Johanna Iser, known for her tremendous musicality and vocal flexibility. “Her range of musical abilities naturally inspires me as a composer, arranger and bandleader. I have worked with many great singers, but Johanna’s flexibility is unique. Whether it’s a quartet, big band or symphony orchestra, something exciting and special always comes out,” he adds. 

With the Thilo Wolf Jazz Quartet, Iser, signed with Modernsoul, a publishing partner of BMG, will bring to the mix her ability to merge musical motifs and virtuoso scat singing. “The audience can expect a vibrant, playful mixture of classic jazz standards including high-class instrumental and vocal improvisation as well as individual, modern interpretations, and stunning arrangements of classical standards that they might have never heard before. There will also be a performance of personal songs that members of the band have written together,” the Bavaria-based singer tells us. “So, this will be a colourful soundscape that perfectly suits the ear of a well-experienced jazz standard lover as well as an audience more oriented towards the modern.”

The NCPA International Jazz festival 2022 will be presented on the 25th, 26th and 27th November at the Tata Theatre. 

*This feature was originally published in print in the November 2022 edition of ON Stage by the NCPA, Mumbai. 

Music beyond borders

Taufiq Qureshi’s exploration of the African djembe in the context of Indian classical music has kept the musical tradition alive and made the genre relevant and accessible to newer audiences, all the while leaving a mark on world music. We speak to the percussionist to learn about his connection with the djembe and the many ways in which he interprets rhythm through sound and cultures. 

Taufiq Qureshi may have been born into a family of tabla maestros. But it’s hard to imagine the ace percussionist anywhere other than behind a djembe. It makes sense then that rhythm seems to know no bounds for Qureshi, for it was a bond established the moment he was brought home from the hospital as a newborn. Growing up in a home reverberating with the sounds of the tabla, or ‘naad’ — his father Ustad Alla Rakha and brother Ustad Zakir Hussain practiced riyaz on the daily for hours on end — it became second nature for the young Qureshi to try to replicate those sounds on all sorts of surfaces. At the age of ten, under the tutelage of his father, he went on to learn the repertoire on the instrument for many years before he would come across the djembe. 

“I was always looking to define and transpose all that knowledge and repertoire that my father taught me by way of the tabla on to some other surface. I had been attracted to the bongos, drums and even R.D. Burman’s voice percussion since my childhood days,” says Qureshi, who describes his tryst with the djembe as an instant connection. He had tried all sorts of percussion instruments including the congas that “produced too much of a dead sound” for his liking, the bongos and even the tarbuka, both of which had too small a head to produce the mighty bass, mids and highs that drew him to the djembe in the first place. 

A drum for everyone

Shaped like a goblet with a hardwood body and drumhead covered in rawhide, the djembe can create a wide range of pitches, namely the bass (low), tone (medium) and slap (high), by striking and stroking different areas of the head. The instrument, said to have originated in Mali in West Africa as far back as the 12th century, has been an integral part of daily life and rituals in West African countries for generations even as its popularity reached far beyond. For the Bambara people in Mali, the word djembe translates to ‘everyone gather together in peace’. While there are several origins of the word, they all symbolise the idea of communal gathering and harmony. 

The word djembe translates to ‘for everyone’, Qureshi tells us. If we are to consider the appreciation he receives for his traditional solos rooted in Indian classical music spanning a little over an hour most times, we’d be pressed to agree that the instrument and its sound indeed resonate with all. Whether it’s in India or on prestigious stages at venues like Carnegie Hall and South Bank Centre, Qureshi continues to bring his unique touch on the African instrument to both Indian classical and fusion concerts. This, and the fact that Qureshi has scores of students in India and abroad who are well on their way to learning Indian classical rhythms on the djembe. 

Also a notable composer whose pioneering technique and style is all the rage in studios, he has composed award-winning advertising jingles, and even recorded and arranged background scores for film tracks — the most recent was for the film Brahmastra. His album Rhydhun released in the year 2000 is indicative of the impact that his masterful exploration of the intricacies of Indian rhythms on a non-Indian instrument has on world music. He as also played with John McLaughlin’s Remember Shakti in the remarkable album Saturday Night in Bombay (2001). 

A confluence of cultures

Qureshi’s own fusion ensemble Surya stems from his experiments with the indigenous African instrument back when he studied at St Xavier’s College. By this time, he had already been playing the tabla with Pt. Hariprasad Chaurasia among other stalwarts. Starting out as a college band, Surya reached new heights when Qureshi brought in exemplary musicians including singer Shankar Mahadevan, Salim Merchant (piano) and Sridhar Parthasarathy on the mridangam. “We’ve also been fortunate that Surya has had my brother as well as classical vocalist and sarangi player Ustad Sultan Khan in special editions,” says Qureshi, who has performed with the outfit across India and in Dubai, too. The music of Surya is rooted in Indian classical and jazz fused with influences of world music like Latin, Afro, folk, Middle Eastern and even pop and Bollywood for that matter. Other than Qureshi on the djembe as a constant, Surya has seen a roster of musicians on instruments ranging from the electric guitar and sitar to the sarod, harmonium and keys. 

Preferring to call it a collaboration and collective effort rather than a band, Qureshi tells us that every one of the performing musicians’ contributions are immense, both melodically and rhythmically. Even when it’s his own composition, the musicians are given a free hand to contribute. Qureshi’s limitless exploration of rhythm is also seen in the body and vocal percussions that he is known to weave into the music of Surya. “It’s a tradition that’s become a part of my repertoire. The breath itself is an instrument that can create rhythmic motifs. Voice and body percussion is very primal. I’ve tried to take this rhythm and transpose it outside of me,” says Qureshi, who breaks into a series of vocal phrases as we speak, starting with using his breath in a percussive manner before moving on to the double voice technique, or throat singing, used by the Tuvan monks.

Musical meanderings

Improvisation is another crucial element that defines Surya. “Our music predominantly depends on spontaneous improvisation which is the essence of Indian classical and jazz music. Both these schools of music are marked by improvisations where the head is fixed but the rest happens right there and then. Therefore, a piece we might have performed a month ago will never sound the same if we had to perform it in the present. There’s so much live interaction happening between the musicians.”

The compositions are classical based, meaning there’s a raag, or scale as it is known in Western music. “There’s a proper raag-based melody and the taal is also of a time signature maybe of say ten or seven beats, apart from the usual 4/4 and 6/8. The improvisation happens according to the raag and taal which is based on the Indian classical structure. But what happens in the improvising is purely influenced not only by Indian classical but also by jazz, rock, pop, Afro, Latin and so on. Because there are three percussionists, there’s a lot of rhythmic interaction taking place where sometimes we’ll just veer towards a Latin or Middle Eastern rhythm. There are question-answer scenarios happening between the percussionists which people tend to love,” he explains. 

Speaking about the upcoming concert at the NCPA later this month, Qureshi says that the show titled ‘Conversing Streams’ is all about different streams of music coming together as one. It is also very much a conversation in which the musicians will converse with each other using rhythmic exchanges. Aside from Qureshi on the djembe, vocal rhythms and other percussions, the concert will present Sarang Kulkarni on sarod and electric sarod (Z ROD), Kaushiki Joglekar on keyboards and harmonium, and Qureshi’s son Shikhar Naad on the djembe and additional percussions. 

“I would love the audience to come with an open mind,” he says. “Very often, I’m asked whether we’ll play something new. To be honest, we try our best to make our music sound new even though we may have derived it from a well-known raag or taal. We will do our best to make it sound unlike anything people may have heard or experienced before. But whether we are successful will depend on the audience and whether they come in with an open mind.”

Conversing Streams will be presented on October 15 at the Tata Theatre (NCPA Mumbai)

This feature was originally published in the October 2022 issue of ON Stage, a monthly magazine produced by the National Centre for Performing Arts, Mumbai (NCPA)

Long live the Operetta!

Operetta, a precursor of the modern musical, is often considered less serious than opera. We delve into the history of the ‘lighter’ side of opera to understand why the form continues to thrive in musical theatre of the 21st century. 

Operetta emerged in the second half of the 19th century as an off shoot of the French opéra comique, German Singspiel and even Italy’s commedia dell’arte. While opéra comique is akin to a full-length stage work with tragic plots (think Carmen) and Singspiel more of a light-hearted music drama, the operetta can be thought of as a shorter, lighter version that tackled topics ranging from the satirical to the romantic and from the comic to the absurd. Falling somewhere between an opera and a musical and differing in scale and complexity from opera as we know it, operetta is a form of musical theatre that blends song with orchestral music, spoken dialogue and dance. 

Some of the most notable operetta composers include Jacques Offenbach, Johann Strauss II, Franz Lehár and the due Gilbert and Sullivan. From the Merry Widow to Die Fledermaus right up to The Mikado and the nautical-themed H.M.S. Pinafore, operettas continue to enthrall, albeit as sparkling new productions in a world far removed from the 19th century.

Origins of the operetta

French composer, conductor and librettist Louis-Auguste Florimond Ronger, better known as Hervé, might have written the first operetta (L’ours et le pacha) back in 1842, but it was the German-born French composer Offenbach who is widely regarded as the father of the form. Offenbach wrote over 100 operettas between the 1850s and the 1870s, successfully taking the art form to new heights and stages beyond Paris. In 1850s France, the genre gained recognition as a light-hearted alternative to operas and mainly to satisfy the need for shorter works at a time when state-funded stage works were given a preference. Theatrical composers were up against the French government, which forced them to limit the number of speaking and singing characters to just two artistes. Still, Offenbach is said to have flourished at the time. Robert Planquette and Charles Lecocq were also notable; the French composers wrote popular operettas like La Fille de Madame Angot and Les Cloches de Corneville.

Orphée aux enfers (Orpheus in the Underworld), Offenbach’s first full-length operetta written in 1858, was considered a true hit not only in Paris but also far beyond. The composer took the genre all the way to the US, Austria-Hungary and England. His influence reached England by the 1860s, when Gilbert and Sullivan composed Cox and Box (1866) in response to the Offenbach’s Les deux aveugles (1855). 

Even as Offenbach staged some of his works in Vienna in 1861, his popularity was short-lived as the entertainment-hungry public had begun to turn their attention to Viennese composers who had begun to write operettas of their own. Austrian composer Johann Strauss II, also known as the “Waltz King” remains one of the most famous operetta composers in the German language. His 1874 work Die Fledermaus (The Bat) would go on to become the most performed operetta in the world. Strauss the Younger of “The Blue Danube” fame wrote 16 operettas in his lifetime, all of which enjoyed successful premiers. His works were marked with a signature Viennese style of waltzes, marches and polkas. 

A play on plots

Operettas can be described as the ‘lighter’ sibling of the grand opera, both in terms of music and dialogue. But it also has much to do with the fact that operettas are based on more frivolous and sentimental plots, oftentimes tinged with parody, satire and wit. The orchestration, however, was just as imaginative and the librettos, always supreme. Offenbach’s Ba-ta-clan (1855) was a hit one-act operetta that told the story of Che-i-noor, or China, being ruled by three Chinese who turn out to be a Parisian trio in disguise. Not only was it a satirical take on contemporary politics, but it also challenged the conventions associated with grand opera. 

Gilbert and Sullivan’s H.M.S Pinafore parodied English party politics and the Royal Navy through the operetta’s comic plot that focusses on romantic liaisons between members of different social classes. In Die Fledermaus by Strauss II, we are treated to a rather ludicrous plot that involves mistaken identities, a masked ball, a character dressed as a bat and elaborate schemes with a few white lies thrown in for good measure. 

Operettas can well be considered the forerunner of the modern-day musical, even as both forms of musical theatre simultaneously existed in the early part of the 20th century. The genre had now reached far and wide, including Mexico, Cuba and the United States even as it thrived in the countries of its origin. Fresh adaptions of classics by Strauss II, Gilbert and Sullivan and Offenbach laid the groundwork for a new genre that would soon take over. Oklahoma!, for example, took America by storm with its commentary on social issues expressed as the perfect amalgam of song, dance and spoken dialogue. It’s safe to say then that the operetta had given birth to the musical as we know it; the musical had become a new genre in itself. 

Next month, a fully staged production of Die Fledermaus directed by Hungarian film director and screenwriter SzinetárMiklós is set to arrive at the NCPA. A production of the Hungarian State Opera, the beloved operatic masterpiece has been a part of the Hungarian opera’s repertoire for over 100 years. The fresh rendition of Strauss II’s comedic tale, still among the most successful musical dramas of our time, is one that’s not to be missed. 

A fully staged version of Die Fledermaus by Johann Strauss II will be presented by Hungarian State Opera on 12th, 14th and 16th October at the Jamshed Bhabha Theatre. 

* This article was first published in the September 2022 issue of ON Stage, the monthly arts and cultural magazine by the National Centre of Performing Arts (NCPA), Mumbai.